The movement of liquids and gases through pipes is critical to modern life. In homes, water is needed for both drinking and sanitation. In factories, chemicals are moved to aid in product manufacturing. In power plants, steam is moved to drive turbines that generate electricity. Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters install and repair these pipe systems.

Heaney Plumbing & Heating relies on the most advanced diagnostic tools to assess your pipes. Through camera line inspection, sewer video inspection and other methods, not only can we tell if a plumbing repair or upgrade is warranted, but we can quickly determine where and how to perform it. With our help, your home or business will never be vulnerable to unseen decay.

Sometimes have to clean out your drains and sewers. Unlike other areas of your home that you can clean on your own, you usually can't clean out your drain or sewer. Instead, you'll need the help of professionals like us. Sometimes all you need to do to get a clogged drain or line working again is to have it cleaned out. We use a variety of methods to clean out drains and sewers, including hydro water jetting that shoots pressured water through the drain to loosen the blockage. 
It may be tempting to ignore a small faucet leak, or try to fix that clogged toilet yourself. Although we encourage homeowners to be discerning with their decisions, in some cases it is just safer—and eliminates lots of headaches down the road—by calling on professional help. A licensed plumber will be able to pinpoint the problem and provide you with the best course of action.
It is possible to prevent tree roots from obstructing sewer lines. Chemicals such as copper sulfate and potassium hydroxide can be used around the sewer line to discourage root intrusion.  Metal or wood barriers can also be installed around the sewer lines to keep them free of root damage. When landscaping, it's best to limit the amount of plants or trees placed in close proximity to sewer lines.

The plumbers at Benjamin Franklin Cedar Rapids and Eastern Iowa have provided excellent quality plumbing to the Cedar Rapids and Eastern Iowa community since 1993. We are proud of Benjamin Franklin’s tradition of friendly customer service and are happy to be Cedar Rapid’s Better Business Bureau certified plumbing repair, maintenance, and installation choice.


A licensed plumber means the person completed the necessary education or training required to work as a professional tradesperson. Hiring a licensed plumbing service means the people working on your building are knowledgeable about water and gas pipes. If you use unlicensed workers, you run the risk of them damaging your home even further and endangering you by doing faulty work.

Need a quick fix? After having a plumber come out to your house, they might tell you the part needed to fix your toilet or sink issue is going to take a week. Don’t be too amenable if you can’t wait. There’s no shame in working with another plumber who can get the part and do the job when you need it. If you’re doing the job yourself, be sure you know these tips for completing a plumbing fix like a pro.
“I had a house guest stay the weekend and she reported that the shower faucet was leaking. This was on a Saturday and of course most plumbing companies are closed.  Being that there's a drought I had to save water ASAP so I immediately looked up plumbers on Yelp that were open on Saturday. I called Advanced Plumbing and spoke with Bill. He told me that someone would be out in my area within an hour. 10 minutes later he texts that there will be someone there within half hour. Rene came by and ascertained that we needed a new component for the shower faucet.  Everything was done within an hour and they take Visa which was convenient for me because it's the one day that I didn't have cash on hand.  Advanced Plumbing Service has great customer service and is a pleasure to deal with. Totally recommend!”

Help! The toilet won’t stop running. It’s a bummer, sure, but it’s something you don’t need to call your plumber about. In fact, DIYers should take note that it’s a quick fix that will cost you just $5. For instance, your handle might just be sticking, which can be solved by spraying some lubricant where the handle meets the porcelain. Ready to DIY? Here’s how to fix a running toilet.
My anxiety level always rises when I get a call after 11pm. Worst case scenario: a family emergency or a sewer backup. When it’s raining hard, guess which one it is? After a couple of nasty nighttime backups, it was time to face reality and get the seweroscopy. The rooter guys put the camera down and discovered a sewer belly, or dip in the sewer line where crap collects; time to replace at least 20′ of our ancient clay main sewer line. We selected 3 firms from Consumers Checkbook to estimate the…
Our mission is to give something back to the community in appreciation for the community's support of our business. Whether it’s through Atlanta’s Professional sports team, High and Middle Schools, local sports teams or home town events, we love coming out and enjoying and supporting the communities that have helped make us the company that we are. 
Plumbing repairs in your residence are normally not a pleasurable predicament for any house owner to be in we realize. However, we wish to aid residents on various responsibilities that can regularly be accomplished to keep ones plumbing system performing at optimum efficiency. Compared to other home systems like the cooling and heating system, home plumbing maintenance is usually much simpler for the majority of homeowners to make repairs that might be needed, and to do regular maintenance. We have lots of strategies and instruction in our blog that are helpful too. Throughout times when you need our specialized assistance, we are constantly prepared to help.
We live in a recently completed townhouse that was built with double-wall construction. That construction method was touted by the builder as what would keep sound from penetrating between the units. But we can hear the next door neighbors' TV and stereo, and sometimes voices and even snoring, through the wall. While sometimes it's the volume, mostly it's the bass sounds coming through the wall. They say they don't hear us, but we keep our bass turned down. They crank up the bass, and they are not going to change that. They also are not going to do anything construction-wise to help from their side. What is the best way for us to try to block the low frequency/bass sounds from penetrating the existing wall into our side?

Bonney Plumbing, Electrical,  Heating and Air, has been your local, reliable service company since 1978.  As an A+ rated member of the Better Business Bureau, we have worked hard to build our reputation by providing you with top notch technicians, superior products and exceptional customer service.  We have serviced thousands upon thousands of satisfied, loyal customers and are so pleased to earn your referrals. You can count on Bonney for quick, reliable service and repair for your plumbing, heating and air conditioning needs.

When you’re searching for a dependable Dallas plumber or Dallas plumbing company “near me” which offers licensed and trained plumbers for any plumbing repair or plumbing installation like water heaters, tankless heaters, garbage disposals, drain or sewer lines, water filtration, water softening or other plumbing needs, call 214-892-2225214-892-2225.
As a family-owned and operated company, the American Rooter Plumbing team are proud providers of fast, friendly and affordable service, fulfilling the needs of residential and commercial customers throughout the entire community. Our team's philosophy? Our customers deserve to know what's going on with their plumbing if there's a problem. For that reason, we take the time to educate and advise them on the best solutions to their individual needs.
A licensed plumber means the person completed the necessary education or training required to work as a professional tradesperson. Hiring a licensed plumbing service means the people working on your building are knowledgeable about water and gas pipes. If you use unlicensed workers, you run the risk of them damaging your home even further and endangering you by doing faulty work.

In 2015, Homesense Heating and Cooling acquired the building and spent more than $1 million to redevelop it into Refinery 46, a co-working space for home service providers such as electricians and plumbers. — Liz Biro, Indianapolis Star, "Double 8 grocery stores: Here's what they are now," 1 May 2018 Much like how plumbers, electricians, and other tradesmen install and service other equipment in a home. — Tom Warren, The Verge, "Former Alexa smart home chief and Windows Media Center founder joins Control4," 2 Aug. 2018 And those who live and work here had the same problems, along with closed schools, canceled surgeries at hospitals and long wait times to schedule plumbers. — Jennifer Larino, NOLA.com, "Spirit adding nonstop flight from New Orleans to Atlantic City in April," 19 Jan. 2018 Robots won’t eat all the jobs, says Marco Zappacosta, the CEO and co-founder of Thumbtack, a marketplace for service professionals from plumbers to yoga teachers to personal trainers. — Carolyn Said, SFChronicle.com, "Why the robot apocalypse won’t kill all gig economy jobs," 16 June 2018 Most people will accept spending $80/hour on a plumber, but balk at putting a similar price tag on the value of their company’s website. — Jenny Knizner, USA TODAY, "Fundamentals of hiring a freelance designer for your business," 19 Mar. 2018 Then a team of plumbers begins restarting the system around St. Patrick’s Day, with the aim of having all outdoor water features back up and running by Memorial Day weekend. — Keith Williams, New York Times, "It’s Hot. How Do I Get the Spray Shower at the Park to Work?," 19 June 2018 The full-time employees losing their jobs include electricians, plumbers, carpenters and other skilled tradespeople needed to operate and maintain a large events venue. — James B. Nelson, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Many long-time Bradley Center workers will not have jobs at the new Bucks arena," 11 May 2018 There are female plumbers, taxi-drivers and bartenders. — The Economist, "How a victorious Bashar al-Assad is changing Syria," 28 June 2018

Severe plumbing emergencies can cause a lot of collateral damage and result in high costs if not addressed immediately. For example, if your basement floods at 2:00 A.M., it’s vital that an emergency plumber visits right away to resolve the problem and prevent further water damage. Our technicians can arrive at your residence as soon as possible, bringing state-of-the-art equipment to address the plumbing emergency, complete the job in a timely and efficient manner, and get your household plumbing systems back to normal quickly.
We know that sometimes emergencies arise. For instance, if your toilet is overflowing without stopping and nothing will flush, then you have an emergency on your hands. In such instances, we can provide you with emergency service. We are available to our customers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for your convenience, and we offer same day service every chance we get. We know how frustrating it is trying to work around sewer and drain line issues, and that's why we want to offer you fast, expedient service to get your issues fixed as soon as possible. Plus, we'll never charge you an emergency fee. 
Flexible plastic tubing can be used to circulate hot water below your home’s flooring. This is known as hydronic heating. The water/liquid is stored in a boiler and pushed into a plumbing manifold so that it can be properly circulated throughout your home floors as designed. While this is a very beneficial way to radiate heat through your floors during colder seasons, hydronic heating can develop some serious problems that require plumbing repair.
Sometimes you might need your sewer and drain lines inspected. For instance, if your sewage is backed up, then you probably want to determine what the cause is. In instances where we can't physically get to the problem to see what it is, we can use a sewer video camera to go down into your lines and take a video showing us what's the issue then. That way we'll know the appropriate way to deal with it. 
And Berkeys licensed plumbers offer plumbing, water heater, drain and sewer repairs and services in 75001, 75006, 75007, 75010, 75019, 75038, 75039, 75062, 75063, 75080, 75081, 75082, 75234, 75248, 75252, 75287, 75061, 75060, 75201, 75202, 75203, 75204, 75205, 75206, 75207, 75208, 75209, 75210, 75211, 75212, 75214, 75215, 75216, 75217, 75218, 75219, 75220, 75221, 75222, 75223, 75224, 75225, 75226, 75227, 75228, 75229, 75230, 75231, 76092 and more. Call to confirm plumbing service for your home.
“Had a late night backed up kitchen sink! I researched local area plumbers and the Advanced Plumbing website said they offered emergency service. I needed this taken care of quickly as my kitchen was a mess. I called early the next morning and the phone was answered right away--whew! The plumber arrived promptly and fixed it within a short amount of time and our family was back in business! Thank you!”
https://rooterman.com follows a standard procedure of using server log files. These files log visitors when they visit websites. The information collected in the log files include internet protocol (IP) addresses, browser types, Internet Service Provider (ISP), date and time stamps, and referring/entrance/exit pages. These are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable to the visitor (you). The purpose of the information is for analyzing trends, and administering the site.
*Price per line. Full size external clean-out access required for drain cleaning and video inspection. Residential Only. Valid at participating ARS® / Rescue Rooter® Network locations. Not valid for third party, new construction customers, with any other offers or discounts, or prior sales. Coupon required at time of service. Void if copied or transferred and where prohibited. Any other use may constitute fraud. See service center for details. Cash value $.001. ARS® Rescue Rooter®. License # TACLA018810E R. Hoffart, MPL41408 S. Neidig, TECL28671 M. James. Offer expires: 12/31/2018.
Charlie is the best! He goes above and beyond! He arrived 1/2 hour before the quoted time, wore covers on his shoes from the moment he arrived on the property, was very polite and was a great conversationalist as well:) When I had to attend to my work, he started in on our nightmare garbage disposal. Before I could finish one email, he was cleaning up after himself and replacing the items under my sink. When I asked how it was going, he announced with a smile that he was all done! (He was here less than 1/2 hr). I have to say not only am I seriously impressed with his work, but his customer service well exceeded my expectations. In addition, he is a local business owner! So support local business and call Charlie!

It is possible to prevent tree roots from obstructing sewer lines. Chemicals such as copper sulfate and potassium hydroxide can be used around the sewer line to discourage root intrusion.  Metal or wood barriers can also be installed around the sewer lines to keep them free of root damage. When landscaping, it's best to limit the amount of plants or trees placed in close proximity to sewer lines.
Specializing in sewer inspection and sewer cleanings, we also offer a variety of plumbing repair services for garbage disposals, faucets, sprinkler systems and sewer channels in Greeley, CO and Greater Loveland and Fort Collins. Small plumbing problems such as clogged sewer systems or deficient faucets are inconvenient now and can lead to bigger problems down the road. Save money in the long run by correcting your plumbing issues today. And to further save you money, Reliable Rooter Service always offers free quotes and inspections, $10 off drain cleaning and $25 off sewer inspections.

As with other construction workers, employment of plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters is sensitive to fluctuations in the economy. On the one hand, workers may experience periods of unemployment when the overall level of construction falls. On the other hand, shortages of workers may occur in some areas during peak periods of building activity.
I am not a plumber, but I am familiar with oxidation.  Many simple plumbing valves only need to be removed and new "O" rings installed.  That's where the problem comes in.  Most older homes used metal pipes and not PVC.  Usually the valve screws into a different type of metal and oxidation occurs between the two metals, almost becoming one.  In order to get the valve stem out you have to break it loose.  If you break the pipe, not only do you have a mess but then you have to pay to fix it.  Simple if you break it you pay.  If a plumber breaks it, he is responsible.  I recommend paying the plumbers fee and save yourselves headaches in the long run.  

Help! The toilet won’t stop running. It’s a bummer, sure, but it’s something you don’t need to call your plumber about. In fact, DIYers should take note that it’s a quick fix that will cost you just $5. For instance, your handle might just be sticking, which can be solved by spraying some lubricant where the handle meets the porcelain. Ready to DIY? Here’s how to fix a running toilet.
Not all plumbing companies can guarantee up-front pricing, superior workmanship and parts, licensed and insured plumbing contractors, and courteous support from uniformed professionals. Whether you are in need of drain cleaning or would like to schedule a plumbing inspection for your home, Mr. Rooter's plumbing services can handle it all! Our skilled plumbers are knowledgeable and equipped with the latest tools needed to achieve optimal results. Give us a call at (855) 982-2028, or request a job estimate online.
You won't always need to call a plumber to help you fix a nasty clog if you treat your pipes right. Don't use your toilet or kitchen sink like a trash can by stuffing hard to flush material down the drain or pouring fats and oils down the pipe. Throw coffee grounds and eggshells in the garage instead of in your sink. Also, only use your toilet to flush human waste and toilet paper, because any other materials could clog your commode.
Get a minimum of three bids. Estimates for an average-sized job should be within a few hundred dollars. Be suspicious of anything that is substantially lower or double the price of the rest, and watch out for hidden fees, like charges for travel expenses. They could be signs of a home improvement scam. A good plumber will not nickel and dime you like this, and many of us will offer free estimates.

It’s easy to take your plumbing system for granted, but when it goes out, going without water could be the least of your worries. Even minor plumbing issues like leaky faucets and clogged sewer channels can have major consequences if left unattended. Reliable Rooter Service is Greeley, Colorado’s trusted company for plumbing repairs around the house or office.
Alexa is an experienced lifestyle and news writer, currently working with Reader's Digest, Shape Magazine, and various other publications. She loves writing about her travels, health, wellness, home decor, food and drink, fashion, beauty, and scientific news. Follow her traveling adventures on Instagram: @living_by_lex, send her a message: [email protected], and check out her website: livingbylex.com
My toilet's fill valve needed to be replaced after breaking on a Saturday evening. I immediately contacted Charlie's Rooter after having had a great experience with them previously with my garbage disposal install. Lulu responded within moments and setup an appointment time that worked for me on Monday. Luis was the plumber that worked on this job. He was on time and extremely kind and professional. Luis went straight to the root of the problem and replaced what needed to be replaced very quickly. Luis was respectful and explained everything he was doing and why. He was even nice enough to look at my bathtub and answered all of my questions. Also, the price was extremely reasonable. I will be recommending them to my neighbors and friends when they need a good, honest plumbing company that doesn't overcharge. The work comes with a 30 day warranty which I love because it gives me some extra reassurance. I really am happy to have found this company and feel confident and comfortable with their work and staff.

We provide a wide range of services from leaky faucets to water heater replacements and repairs. We proudly install American made Bradford-White brand water heaters. We service what we sell. That means should anything ever happen just give us a call. We can fix it for you. We also typically handle water heater replacements and repairs the same day. We frequently receive calls from customers who purchased water heaters from companies like Sears and Home Depot and are unable to get service on their water heater for 2 or 3 days.That is absurd! We understand your situation and promise to come out and help as soon as possible.

Thanks to Lowe's, making bathroom repairs may not be as difficult as you originally thought. This video should help you fix the running toilet that keeps you up at night, and an always-useful toilet plunger will undoubtedly come in handy. Perhaps it's water heater parts or general plumbing tools you really need. Look to Lowe's for all the popular names like American Standard, AquaSource, Danco, Fluidmaster, Jacuzzi and KOHLER, plus a wide selection of name-brand products and parts including Delta faucets and Delta faucet parts, Moen faucets and Moen faucet parts and KOHLER faucets. Lowe's has you covered when you need a faucet cartridge or faucet aerators, PEX and offers a host of easy-to-use guides, links and videos. Happy repairs!

At Oscar's Plumbing & Rooter Service, we deliver speedy and reliable plumbing services at reasonable rates. We handle a variety of jobs, from garbage disposals to water mains and water heaters. It’s important to have the job done right the first time! Expert installation the first time can result in fewer repairs and money saved over time. Call Oscar's Plumbing & Rooter Service – we do the job right, and we get there right away!
When you need honest, reliable plumbing, heating, or cooling services in Northern Virginia, suburban Maryland, or throughout the D.C. area, look no further than My Plumber Heating and Cooling! We’re proud to be the region’s number one choice for home comfort since 1982. Whether you’re dealing with a broken air conditioner, outdated heating system, backed-up drain, or burst pipe, our highly trained team is ready to help. We offer everything from emergency plumbing repairs to new heating and air conditioning system installation to indoor air quality services and more. Most of all, we stand behind everything we do with extensive warranties and our 100% customer satisfaction guarantee. At My Plumber Heating and Cooling, your comfort is our priority! We have three convenient locations in Manassas, Fairfax, and Fredericksburg so that you don't have to wait to get the help you need.
Prices, promotions, styles, and availability may vary. Our local stores do not honor online pricing. Prices and availability of products and services are subject to change without notice. Errors will be corrected where discovered, and Lowe's reserves the right to revoke any stated offer and to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions including after an order has been submitted.
When a person has a blockage in their sewage system they often try to fix it themselves by adding an acid or a base such as Drano in an attempt to dissolve or dislodge the problem. These chemicals can get into the plumbers eyes [14]when the sewage is splashed during the repair. The plumbers skin during the repair does come into contact with the sewage water.[15] The owner of the toilet might not report to the plumber they have already tried Drano a highly caustic base .
Of course, some repairs are easier and quicker to handle than others. Some are a major hassle—particularly those that involve working on pipes that are hidden behind walls or under floors or are otherwise difficult to access. This doesn’t mean you can’t do them yourself, it just means you may need a little more instruction, a few more tools, and a load of patience.
We live in a recently completed townhouse that was built with double-wall construction. That construction method was touted by the builder as what would keep sound from penetrating between the units. But we can hear the next door neighbors' TV and stereo, and sometimes voices and even snoring, through the wall. While sometimes it's the volume, mostly it's the bass sounds coming through the wall. They say they don't hear us, but we keep our bass turned down. They crank up the bass, and they are not going to change that. They also are not going to do anything construction-wise to help from their side. What is the best way for us to try to block the low frequency/bass sounds from penetrating the existing wall into our side?
Did you know that your tap water might contain traces of such harmful chemicals as lead, arsenic, cadmium, and pesticides? High levels of these and other toxins commonly found in drinking water are known to cause disease and damage organs. Having either a reverse osmosis or carbon-based water filtration system professionally installed by Baker Brothers Plumbing, Air Conditioning & Electrical is a great way to safeguard the health of your family by virtually eliminating the toxins in your tap water. Soon, you will find the water coming from your tap is pure and tastes clean, meaning you can use it for drinking, cooking, bathing, and laundry without issue.
When water doesn’t stay where it’s supposed to, our Duncanville water damage restoration crews are at-the-ready to handle flooded basements, broken pipes, overflowing tubs and toilets, heavy rains, sewer line backups and other water issues. Roto-Rooter’s IICRC certified water cleanup professionals are available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and will respond quickly to minimize damage to your property.
JJ's Plumbing Repair has no control over, and assumes no responsibility for, the content, privacy policies, or practices of any third party web sites or services. You further acknowledge and agree that JJ's Plumbing Repair shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods or services available on or through any such web sites or services.
And Berkeys licensed plumbers offer plumbing, water heater, drain and sewer repairs and services in 75001, 75006, 75007, 75010, 75019, 75038, 75039, 75062, 75063, 75080, 75081, 75082, 75234, 75248, 75252, 75287, 75061, 75060, 75201, 75202, 75203, 75204, 75205, 75206, 75207, 75208, 75209, 75210, 75211, 75212, 75214, 75215, 75216, 75217, 75218, 75219, 75220, 75221, 75222, 75223, 75224, 75225, 75226, 75227, 75228, 75229, 75230, 75231, 76092 and more. Call to confirm plumbing service for your home.
Flexible plastic tubing can be used to circulate hot water below your home’s flooring. This is known as hydronic heating. The water/liquid is stored in a boiler and pushed into a plumbing manifold so that it can be properly circulated throughout your home floors as designed. While this is a very beneficial way to radiate heat through your floors during colder seasons, hydronic heating can develop some serious problems that require plumbing repair.
Awesome experience with Charlie's Rooter Service! Our outside area drains were overflowing when it rained and about to flood toward the house. I called Charlie's and they had Luis come over within an hour. Luis was super friendly and ready to help when he arrived. He figured out the problem and snaked the street drain and pulled out a huge clump of roots that were clogging it up! But there was still some backup flooding on the side that he was able to isolate to get rid of the mud and debris that were clogging that up. Before leaving, Luis even gave suggestions on how to flush it out periodically to keep things flowing smoothly. Luis is the best and I would definitely use him for future plumbing problems, highly recommended!
https://rooterman.com follows a standard procedure of using server log files. These files log visitors when they visit websites. The information collected in the log files include internet protocol (IP) addresses, browser types, Internet Service Provider (ISP), date and time stamps, and referring/entrance/exit pages. These are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable to the visitor (you). The purpose of the information is for analyzing trends, and administering the site.
Sometimes, homeowners are not sure whether they should call a local plumber immediately or wait a while longer for repairs. But remember that no matter how small the problem is, it can escalate into something much worse as time goes on. We recommended contacting our team immediately when you notice any performance issues with your system, including leaking or clogs, so that we can get out there ASAP. You can also schedule an appointment with us to add on important plumbing features, like a water softener or an automatic shut off valve.

And Berkeys licensed plumbers offer plumbing, water heater, drain and sewer repairs and services in 75001, 75006, 75007, 75010, 75019, 75038, 75039, 75062, 75063, 75080, 75081, 75082, 75234, 75248, 75252, 75287, 75061, 75060, 75201, 75202, 75203, 75204, 75205, 75206, 75207, 75208, 75209, 75210, 75211, 75212, 75214, 75215, 75216, 75217, 75218, 75219, 75220, 75221, 75222, 75223, 75224, 75225, 75226, 75227, 75228, 75229, 75230, 75231, 76092 and more. Call to confirm plumbing service for your home.
Some allege that putting a brick in the toilet tank can save water, but doing that can keep your toilet from flushing correctly. Another plumbing tip, avoid liquid drain cleaners. Liquid drain cleaners are also bad news—they eat away at the pipes. Try a plunger or, better yet, a $30 auger. Don’t have either? Here’s how to unclog a toilet without a plunger.
To show our confidence in our work, we offer unbeatable warranty programs, including warranties for water heater parts, water and waste repipes, and more. Also, financing options are available because we know that you can’t always plan for the unexpected. We’re local, passionate, professional, and affordable, and we always work within your budget and stay on schedule.
It's best to hire a plumber to do a simple, everyday maintenance task for you first so you can judge his or her work. If you're happy with it, save their contact information so you'll have them on hand in case you need an emergency repair. This can spare you the extra worry and anxiety of having to track down a plumber if you have a broken pipe. Additionally, it can save you from being overcharged.
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